Typography Fundamentals

Typography is one of the considerable knowledge and industry fields, based on typefaces. They are an integral part of any graphic design, publishing or typing projects. However, before clashing with fonts' choice that appears to a major issue in design, one should get acquainted with typography fundamentals, accumulated from famous typographers for centuries, including basic terms, styles and principles.

Typography is a primary integral part of any web0design project, as its main purpose is to carry information. In addition, it is an art of text decoration, so it could readable and beautiful at the same time.

Type family is usually mistaken for types or fonts. In sober fact, it is a group of fonts of the same origin, structure and image. It is a set of stylistically similar characters that you can write or print. Type family includes figures, letters and symbols. Font is a narrows concept, which is determined by several factors, such as size and style. In general, Arial is a type family, and Arial Bold is a font of this type family.

Serif fonts or Antiqua embraces all the fonts with small serifs at the top or at the bottom of their characters. They are strongly recommended for large text paragraphs because of their low readability. These are good for headlines and title lines. Serif fonts have been used since the Middle Ages period (for instance, one can pay attention to OldStyle Century). The characteristic feature: the part written at certain angle is usually thin. Beside Old Style Century, the group of old-fashioned Antiqua fonts embrace such type families (remember this term?) Centaur and Goudy Old Style.

The 18th century was a turning point in typography. It was a period of transitional serifs . The difference between wide and thin character lines is strongly visible, which may be observed in numerous fonts of the time – Baskerville, Times New Roman, Caslon, Bookman, Georgia, etc.

Later they were replaced with Slab serifs , which feature the same width of the lines.

Sans serifs or Grotesque fonts appeared at the end of the 18th century. There are four main types of sans serifs: grotesque fonts (Franklin Gothic) are very similar to serif fonts; Neo-Grotesque fonts (Arial. Helvetica), Humanist fonts (Optima, Verdana, Frutiger) are marked with thorough calligraphic letters and Geometric sans serifs are the most advanced modern fonts. The last ones include Metro, Futura, Eurostile, Rodchenko, etc.

There are also some other groups of fonts of equal importance, including Script and Decorative, but mostly they came from basic serifs and sans serif fonts .

Different Types of A Financial Calculator To Choose From

If you are making some financial goals for the future, whether it has to do with your mortgage, investments, car loans or even managing your debt, being able to calculate things like your returns, the time period for which you need to save or how much you need to save is important.

With the various resources now available to you via the internet, you no longer have to wait on a meeting with the experts to give you the information you need. Instead, you can now use the resources available to you online to get started today.

One of the most important resources that you will find online as it relates to planning your financial future is a financial or money calculator. There are many different types available, and so you will need to choose the one appropriate to you based on your area of interest.

Mortgage Calculator: This calculator can be used to determine your monthly payments based on the interest rate and terms of your mortgage. As a result, you will find that there are different versions of this calculator available. There is a calculator for fixed mortgages and also one for adjustable rate mortgages. There is even a calculator that will help you to compare the two different types of mortgages to see which will suit you best. In addition, if you are thinking about refinancing or buying a new home, there is a mortgage calculator that will help you to determine the terms which will be most favorable to your situation.

Car Loans: This calculator will help to give you the confidence you need when dealing with the dealer of your car financing. You can use this calculator to check the terms of your loan and determine your monthly payments. In addition, you can also use the car loan calculator to compare various loans and choose the one with terms most appropriate for you.

Credit Cards: Today many persons are consolidating their credit card debts in order to pay off their credit card loans faster and also to be more consistent. You can use this type of financial calculator to help you determine the amount that you will need to pay in order to complete the payment of your credit cards by a set date. You can also use this calculator to help you see the difference it will make if you choose to make fixed payments to your credit cards instead of just paying the minimum amount.

Investing: If you are thinking about investing or have started to do so, financial calculators will help you to determine the amount you need to save in order to reach your goal. It can also be used to determine the amount that your investment will earn over time.

There is also a calculator for retirement planning, managing your debt and your personal finance. Basically, any type of calculator that you need to plan your financial future can be found online. The calculators are also very easy to use and most of all they are free.

Pain and Pleasure – The Inspiration For Weight Loss Success

We sometimes feel frustrated because we do not do anything about our weight issues. We become lazy and uninspired to do anything about it. What is that that gets some people moving towards their weight loss goals. We see these people moving and nothing stops them from achieving their goals. Their focus is laser like. Their focus is guiding them to their destination with resolve.

How can you have this type of focus? How can you be inspired to do something about your weight issues?

Pain and pleasure
The key is hidden in your tolerance to pain and what you experience as pleasure. When it comes to weight loss, many people do not act until there is so much pain that it forces them to act. For example, when your doctor tells you that you must lose weight or else you could die what would you do? How motivated is that for you to change? It all depends on what you experience as pain and pleasure.

For some, the pain of innocent death is so painful that the pain and sacrifice of exercise is worth it to stay alive. These people will put off pleasure to experience pain. They will experience pain first and pleasure afterwards.

The wrong order is to experience pleasure first and then pain. This order will keep you overweight and frustrated. Let's see examples as to how this works.

Pain and then pleasure
You might be in a situation where everyone around you is eating unhealthy foods and you want to stay committed to your weight loss goals by avoiding unhealthy foods. The pain of passing up great tasting food is powerful but you do not give in. Not to mention the pressure you'll receive by the offers of food. You'll experience pleasure afterwards knowing that you did not sabotage. You keep your integrity and your self-esteem is maintained if not increased. You do not experience feelings of guilt. Another word for this type of behavior is called delayed gratification. Where you purposefully delay gratifying things that will sabotage you to experience pleasure later.

Pleasure and then pain
Let's take the same scenario and say you wanted to experience pleasure first by eating unhealthy foods. The pleasure in enjoying the taste of the unhealthy food is powerful. So powerful that you do not delay the gratification. As time goes by you feel the guilty of eating unhealthy foods. You feel fat, sluggish and slow. You wonder then why you do not have discipline to say no. This is the experience of feeling the pain afterwards.

The point here is to experience the pain first and then feel the pleasure. Delay gratification is due process. It's essential to apply the technique of pain and pleasure. Practice delaying gratification so that you do not sabotage. That's what it's all about. You must practice this technique to be successful when it comes to weight loss. It's your choice. What are you going to choose?

Josue

How To Read Jewelry Marks

The number markings on precious gold jewelry are a bit of confusion to lots of people. We are generally used to seeing a karat or silver mark like this: 10K, 14K, 18K, Sterling, etc. The numbers mean the same thing.

For 14k the number is technically 583 but most manufacturers adopted the European way and make 14k gold a tiny bit over 14k, so the mark is 585 in most 14k jewelry. 18K is marked 750. If the mark is valid and there is a makers mark also in the jewelry, the number means these items are 18k gold.

Here is where the numbers come from. Pure gold is called 24 karat. For 18k gold, there are 18 parts of pure gold mixed with other metals to make the metal suitable for use in jewelry. 24k is too soft alone to stand up or to hold stones well. 18 parts pure gold divided by 24, or 18/24 equals 750. That is where the number comes from. The jewelry is 75% pure gold, 750 parts gold with 250 parts other metals out of “1000″ parts. It is easier to think of it as a percent which is pure gold in the recipe.

Sterling silver is marked 925. Sterling is 92.5% pure silver and the rest is other metal, generally copper.

What does it mean if the ring marked 14K PR? The 14K simply means it is 14K (Karat) gold and because of the K means it would have been made in either South East Asia or The United States. The PR marks are just the Maker or Store ID or even a design mark, and have no relevance to the Value.

The basic decimal formula to work out the quality of gold content is quite simple, as they are all measured in ‘Parts per Thousand.’ This means that 9ct gold is calculated like this: 9 (for 9ct) is divided by pure gold (24) and then multiplied by 1000 (for pure gold as a decimal). ie: 9/24*1000=375 That 375 is the decimal quality for 9ct gold and is sometimes shown with a decimal point in front – .375

The old Victorian standard of 15ct gold is calculated the same way – 15/24*1000 = 625 (Not quite the numbers you have on your jewelry. Dental gold is 16ct or 666 recurring. But you can also reverse this formula by starting with the decimal and working back. ie: 375/1000*24 = 9

In your case we can use 698/1000*24 = almost 17ct

I have a platinum engagement ring and found a wedding ring that I really like but the band is made of palladium. Is it safe to wear these two metals together without one damaging the other?

It will wear the softer metal OVER TIME but that could take many years. My Grandmothers wedding ring eventually wore away the band of her engagement ring but it took over 20 years to do.

Platinum and Palladium and quite good together but I would take the advice of your local friendly jeweler and have them check both rings. Sometimes the Platinum may be a lower grade in order to make it harder – so have that checked.